Optical Coherence Tomography and Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Findings in Amblyopic Patients


The Department of Ophthalmology, Research Institute of Ophthalmology* and Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University**


Abstract Background: Amblyopia is a unilateral or bilateral decrease of visual acuity caused by deprivation of pattern vision or abnormal binocular interaction, for which no cause can be detected by physical examination of the eye and which in some cases, can be reversed by therapeutic measures. Aim of Study: To examine amblyopic eyes in a comparative study with age matched controls to detect possible changes in macular, Ganglion cell layer (GCL), choroid, peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) measurements using optical coherence tomography (OCT), and foveal avascular zone (FAZ) area using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Patients and Methods: A case control observational study. Forty eyes of forty participants divided into 4 groups. 30 patients with unilateral amblyopia due to strabismus, ani-sometropia and sensory deprivation (each group included 10 patients) compared with 10 controls. OCT & OCTA were done using (Heidelberg Engineering, OCT spectralis, Germany). Results: As regard mean GCL thickness and FAZ area in superficial capillary plexus (SCP) and deep capillary plexus (DCP), there was no statistically significant difference between patients' groups and control group. Also there was no statisti-cally significant difference in RNFL thickness between am-blyopic groups and control group except nasal quadrant in strabismic and sensory deprivative groups, there was statisti-cally significant difference. For sub-foveal thickness there was statistically significant difference in strabismic, anisome-tropic groups, but no significant difference in sensory depriv-ative group. Conclusion: Patients with unilateral amblyopia were prone to have a higher central macular thickness in sensory depriv-ative group only, with no difference in thickness regarding other groups, and thinner nasal quadrant RNFL thickness in strabismic and sensory deprivative groups only, when compared to control eyes.