Prevalence of Glaucoma among High Myopic Patients


The Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University


Abstract Background: Glaucoma is an optic neuropathy that is characterized by the selective loss of retinal ganglion cells and their axons, which manifests as the loss of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL). Numerous studies have shown that the extent of RNFL damage correlates with the severity of functional deficit in the visual field (VF), and that RNFL measurement by optical coherence tomography (OCT) has good sensitivity for the detection of glaucoma. Aim of Study: To assess the prevalence of glaucoma among high myopic patients and the association between them using standard automated perimetry (SAP) and optical coherence tomography (OCT). Patients and Methods: This prospective observational randomized cross sectional study was conducted on 80 eyes of 42 patients with high myopia, in the period from September 2019 to June 2021. Results: 52.5% of myopic cases were in the right (OD) side and 47.5% were in the left (OS) eye. The mean UCVA and BCVA was 1.07±0.29 and 0.56±0.28 respectively. The mean spherical equivalent (Diopters) was –10.94±4.34. The mean intraocular pressure was 17.85±2.86mm/Hg. The mean vertical cup ratio, mean deviation, pattern SD was 0.51±0.12, –3.42±4.09 and 2.38±1.34 respectively. 47.5% eyes were within normal limits according to Glaucoma hemifield test, 27.5% eyes were outside normal limits, 15% eyes had general reduction of sensitivity and 10% eyes were borderline. The mean average RNFL thickness was 96.45±15.01 meanwhile, the mean Sup. Avg and Inf. Avg. was 100.06±18.13 and 94.87± 15.40 respectively.UNVA, BCVA and Spherical equivalent were significantly higher in glaucoma group compared to non-glaucoma group (p=0.006, 0.004 & 0.01 respectively), while, there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups regarding laterality (p>05). Conclusion: Glaucoma, the leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide, can adversely impact quality of life for patients with visual field defects even if they are unaware of their diagnosis. Glaucoma is a group of diseases, and is one of the leading causes of irreversible blindness in the adult population worldwide.