Ocular Parameter Changes in Pediatric Patients with Nephrotic Syndrome

Document Type : Original Article


The Departments of Pediatric Nephrology*, Ophtalmology**, Faculty of Medicine, Benha University and Benha Children Hospital, Ministry of Health***


Abstract Background: Nephrotic syndrome has a relapsing nature that necessitates prolonged use of steroids and other immu-nosuppressive drugs. Systemic steroid administration is asso-ciated with multiple ocular side effects. This study was conducted to report various ocular manifestations in pediatric patients with nephrotic syndrome. Aim of Study: The aim of our study is to report various ocular manifestations in children with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome. Patients and Methods: This cross-sectional case control study included 100 cases diagnosed with nephrotic syndrome and 50 healthy controls. All subjects were subjected to detailed history taking, general examination, and laboratory investiga-tions. Also, comprehensive ophthalmological examination (including visual acuity, slit lamp microscopy, intraocular pressure measurement, and fundus examination) were per-formed. Results: Unaided visual acuity was significantly increased in cases compared to controls, and that was evident in both right and left eyes. IOP was significantly elevated in cases compared to controls (p<0.001). Cataract was detected in 4 cases (4%). Right eye fundus examination revealed abnormal-ities in 12 cases (12%). The mean duration of disease in our study was 2.22 years (range, 6 months – 9 years). Disease duration had no significant association with neither of IOP, cataract, nor fundus examination (p>0.05). Conclusion: There is an increased incidence of ocular complications in pediatric cases with nephrotic syndrome. It is recommended that these cases should have regular ophthal-mological examination for early detection of these complica-tions.