Possible Protective Role of Saffron Against Gentamicin-Induced Renal Toxicity in Adult Male Albino Rats: A Histological and Immunohistochemical and Biochemical Study

Document Type : Original Article


The Department of Anatomy and Embryology, Faculty of Medicine, New Giza1, 3, Cairo2 and Beni-Suef4 Universities


Abstract Background: One of the most prescribed classes of anti-biotics is the aminoglycoside family. Gentamicin (Ge) is considered the best frequent member of this family in clinical practice. Although its serum level iswithin the therapeutic range, its nephrotoxicity; the most prominent adverse effect; might still happen. Furthermost, studies are seeking supple-ments that could fight against the antibiotics' adverse inflam-matory and oxidative stress. Saffron (Sa) has been shown to be an effective antioxidant and anti-inflammatory supplement. Aim of Study: The current research highlights the possible protective role of saffron against gentamicin-induced nephro-toxicity in albino rats. Material and Methods: Forty male albino rats were divided into four equal groups. Group I (Control group) received daily intraperitoneal (IP) injection of 0.3ml distilled water. Group II received Sa extract IP injection daily in a dose of 80mg/kg. Group III received Ge daily intermuscular (IM) injection in a dose of 70mg/kg. Group IV received both Ge and Sa extract in the does as previously described. After 7 days of all group's treatment, the nephrotoxicity was assessed by measuring serum creatinine and urea. Moreover, the tissue antioxidant levels of Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dis-mutase (SOD) and genetic expression of Tumor necrosis factor (TNF-a) and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-icB) were evaluated. Distinguishing the extent of renal tissue structural damage was done by both histopathological and immunohistochemical examination. After conducting the quantitative morphometric evaluations, the results were statistically analyzed. Results: Rats given Ge revealed nephrotoxicity represented by anincrease in blood urea and creatinine as well as acute tubular necrosis in the form of tissue severe congestion, vacuolation, desquamation, and interstitial mononuclear cell infiltration. Collagen fibers were strongly deposited. Caspase-3 immunoreactivity was highly positive. Whereas rats given both Sa and Ge exhibited a decrease in serum urea and creatinine levels as well as a relatively minor degree of tissue necrosis. The biochemical results of both control and Sa-only treatedgroups were the same.
Conclusion: Sa extractameliorates the nephrotoxicity induced by Ge antibiotics.