Review Article: Early Onset Scoliosis: Definition, Etiology, Physical Examinations, Classification, and Methods of Treatment

Document Type : Original Article


The Department of Orthopedic Surgery and Traumatology, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar* and Assiut** Universities, Assiut, Egypt


Background: Early Onset Scoliosis (EOS) is defined as scoliosis occurring before the age of 5 years. It affects not only the growing spine but also has a direct influence on the cardiopulmonary development and function of the child. Cardiopulmonary function is compromised as a result of decreased size of the thoracic cavity, which has a negative effect on lung alveolar development.
The goal in the management of EOS is to control the deformity and allow continued growth of the spine and thoracic cavity.
Non-fusion instrumentation facilitates this and allows ongoing respiratory development and optimal cardiopulmonary functions. However some authors describe that early onset scoliosis is that scoliosis starts before the age of 10 years. The debate in these definitions is made because of the differ-ence in spine growth and cardiopulmonary compromise before and after age of five.